In 1997, the Luberon Regional Nature Park, created in 1977, was integrated into the network of Biosphere Reserves. It is bounded to the south and east by the Durance valley, one of the most important rivers in the south-east of the Rhône, which contains wetlands of great interest. This territory is composed of Mediterranean plains and hills irrigated by several rivers with irregular torrential regimes (Calavon, Largue, Lauzon in particular). The east-west facing mountain ranges of Provence, the Luberon Mountains ((1,125 m) and the Monts de Vaucluse (1,256 m), dominate it and are subject to significant alpine influences.
Relations have developed between the actors of this territory and those on the northeast side of the southern slope of the Montagne de Lure (1,826 m), a continuous area with many common characteristics and in particular a strong biological and cultural interest. In 2009, during the periodic review of the Luberon Biosphere Reserve, it became clear that collaboration could be expanded and diversified within the framework of an expanded Biosphere Reserve, an approach that was approved by UNESCO in June 2010.
Inhabited for a very long time, this area is known for the interest of its biological and geological heritage. Human history is particularly rich and has left many traces: a high quality built heritage (villages, castles and religious buildings, industrial heritage, vernacular heritage, etc.), but also practices and knowledge still alive, in particular in relation to a varied agriculture (viticulture, arboriculture, cereal growing, market gardening, perfume plants, livestock, particularly sheep).